Creative Commons and Fair Usage

In essence, the Creative Commons License seeks to find a balance between copyright law and unrestrained misuse of intellectual property which involves crafting a refined set of principles for fair usage in the internet age. The version of the Creative Commons license that I am using allows for the free copying, distribution and display of website materials provided that there is proper attribution, that the use is not commercial and that website materials are not made part of any derivative work. Copyright is retained but distribution and reproduction are more flexible than under existing copyright law.

The Creative Commons License does not apply to any previously published materials, reproduced at this website by permission, which came under existing copyright law in England and Wales (the Copyright Act 1988).

Fair usage rights include the reasonable use of citations from this website for the purposes of research or private study, criticism or review and reporting current events. This applies to both previously published materials and to materials first published on this website.


Users are welcome to download, save or distribute this work electronically or in any other format, including in foreign language translation without written permission subject to the conditions set out in the Creative Commons license.

If you are interested in using materials from this website, please note that:

(i) The author or authors are credited;
(ii) The website address ( is published together with a link to this policy statement in a prominent position;
(iii) The text is not altered and is used in full (the use of extracts under existing fair usage rights is not affected by this condition);
(iv) The work is not resold or used for commercial purposes;
(v) A copy of the work or link to its use online is sent to here.
(vi) Provisions (i)-(v) do not apply to materials on this website reproduced by permission from other publishers, although existing fair usage rights are not affected as mentioned in (iii). Previously published materials are covered by existing copyright law.
(vii) By downloading materials from this website, you are confirming that you have read and accepted the terms of this website’s open access license.

Further Links on Creative Commons and Fair Usage Rights

Brief summaries and more detailed information about the Creative Commons license are available here. The agreement set out for this website has been adapted from the Creative Commons licensing policy developed by the think tank, Demos, which is available here. The Arts and Humanities Data Service (AHDS), a UK national service aiding the discovery, creation and preservation of digital resources in and for research, teaching and learning in the arts and humanities provides a summary of fair usage rights, legally known as ‘fair dealing’, here in paragraphs 18 and 19.